Ibihugu bitanu bikekwaho gutera inkunga Boko Haram

Yanditswe na Ndahayo Emmanuel

Imyaka icumi irashize umutwe w’iterabwoba wa Boko Haram utangiye gukorera ibikorwa by’ubugizi bwa nabi mu gice cy’Amajyaruguru ashyira Uburasirazuba bwa Nigeria ndetse no mu bihugu by’ibituranyi nka Niger na Cameroun.
Igiteye amatsiko kuri ubu ni uburyo uyu mutwe wa mbere ku Isi mu bikorwa by’iterabwoba ukomeje gushinga imizi muri Africa y’Uburengerazuba mu gihe indi mitwe ikomeye ikanagira amafaranga menshi nka Islamic State, kuri ubu yamaze guhashywa mu gihe kitageze ku myaka itatu gusa.”Ni iki gikomeye Boko Haram ifite indi mitwe yatsinzwe itari ifite?”

Bamwe mu basirikari ba Boko Haram umutwe w’iterabwoba uhangayikishije isi muri Iki  gihe ( photo internet)

Ingabo za Nigeria kimwe n’abafatanyabikorwa barimo Umuryango w’ubumwe bw’u Burayi (EU) ndetse n’umuryango w’ibihugu byibumbiye muri NATO, ntako batagize ngo barandure uyu mutwe mu rugamba rumaze imyaka igera mu icumi gusa byose ntibyakemuye ikibazo burundu.

Ubwo Perezida Muhammadu Buhari yiyamamarizaga kuyobora Nigeria bwa mbere, hari hashize igihe gito Boko Haram ishimuse abanyeshuri b’abakobwa barenga 100, ibi byatumye uyu mutwe utinywa cyane ndetse Buhari, wahoze ari umusikari ukomeye mu ngabo za Nigeria, aza gutorwa byitezwe ko azakoresha ubunararibonye bwe mu bya gisirikari maze agahashya uyu mutwe burundu.

Ibi ariko si ko byagenze, urugamba rwo kwirukana Boko Haram ntirwageze ku ntego yarwo kuko usibye kuyambura imijyi n’uduce wari warigaruriye, Boko Haram yakomeje kubaho ndetse no kwiyongerera imbaraga, inarushaho kugera ku bintu byinshi birimo gushyiraho ibirindiro bikomeye bya gisirikari, gutegura ibitero by’ubwiyahuzi ndetse no kwifatanya n’indi mitwe y’iterabwoba nk’ishami rya Al Qaeda ryo mu bihugu by’Abarabu n’ishami ry’umutwe wa Islamic State muri Africa y’Uburengerazuba (ISWAP), tutibagiwe n’umutwe wa Al Shabaab uzwi cyane muri Somalia.

Izi ngufu zose ni zo zatumye Boko Haram imaze kwivugana abagera ku 16,987 kuva mu mwaka wa 2011, barimo Aba-Islam, abakiristu, abokorera imiryango y’ubugiraneza, ingabo ndetse n’izindi ngeri nyinshi z’abantu. Abana barenga 50,000 na bo bagizwe imfubyi n’uyu mutwe, nk’uko byagaragajwe n’Ikigo cy’Ubujyanamana ku bubanyi n’amahanga ndetse n’umutekano muri Nigeria.
Mu mwaka ushize wonyine, Boko Haram yishe abantu bagera kuri 875 ugeraranyije 6985 yari yishe hagati y’umwaka wa 2014 na 2015.

Kuba uyu mutwe warabashije kugera kuri ibi nyamara warambuwe twinshi mu duce wagenzuraga, hari abibaza uko byari kuzagenda iyo urugamba rwa Perezida Buhari rwo kwirukana uyu mutwe rutaza no kubaho.
Uru rugamba rwatumye Buhari atangaza ko ‘bisa nk’aho ingabo ze zahigitse Boko Haram’, gusa abasesenguzi bakurikiranira hafi iby’uyu mutwe bo bakemeza ko ibyo uwo mutwe wabashije kugeraho mu myaka micye ishize binyomoza iyo mvugo ya Perezida Buhari.

Ibyo guhigika Boko Haram kandi binyomozwa n’abagize Inteko Ishinga Amategeko ya Nigeria, aho bemeza ko umutekano wabo ubangamiwe n’ibikorwa by’uyu mutwe, dore ko n’ubundi uyu mutwe uzwiho gushimuta abakomeye kugira ngo uzabasubize umaze guhabwa akayabo k’amafaranga runaka.
Depite Adamu Chika aherutse kubwira bagenzi be ingorane yatewe n’uyu mutwe, ati “Nyakubahwa muyobozi w’inteko ishinga amategeko, ubu turagana he? Mu mwaka ushize sinabashije kujya mu cyaro cy’iwacu ngo ndyame nsinzire, sinakumva ntekanye. Biteye ubwoba. Dukwiye kugira icyo tubikoraho”.
Benshi bemeza ko aya magambo yarushijeho gushimangira ubuhangange uyu mutwe umaze kugira mu gihugu imbere ndetse no hanze yacyo.

Kutabasha guhangana na Boko Haram kandi byashyize leta ya Nigeria mu ihurizo rikomeye nyuma y’uko hari abatangiye kuyishinja kugirana imikoranire n’uyu mutwe.
Ibi birego byarushijeho kumvikana nyuma y’uko uyu mutwe ushimuse ukanica pasiteri Lawan Andimi, maze Ishyirahamwe ry’Amadini ya Gikirisitu muri Nigeria (CAN) rigashinja leta kugirana imikoranire ya hafi na Boko Haram bityo akaba ari yo mpamvu ibikorwa byo kuyirwanya bigenda biguru ntege.
Aba bibajije impamvu ingabo za leta zitakoze ibishoboka ngo zitabare pasiteri Andimi bikimara kugaragara ko yashimuswe.

Uyu mugabo yaje kwicwa akaswe umutwe nyuma yo kwanga guhindura ngo abe umu-islam, ni nyuma kandi y’uko amafaranga agera kuri miliyoni 50 z’amanayira akoreshwa muri Nigeria yanzwe na Boko Haram mu mishyikirano yo kumugaruza.

Ibi byafashwe nk’ubugwari bw’ingabo za Nigeria, binatuma abadepite n’abandi basesenguzi basaba leta kwirukana abayobozi bakuru ba gisikari bakuriye ibikorwa by’akanama kadasanzwe kagamije guhashya Boko Haram. Iyi mvugo ariko nayo yaje guhinduka bidatinze, byemezwa ko ahubwo ubutasi ari bwo bukwiye guhabwa imbaraga.
Mu bisobanuro yatanze, Umuyobozi w’inteko Ishinga Amategeko, Femi Gbajabiamila yagize ati “Hari ikibazo cy’ibikoresho, ingabo ndetse n’ibindi tutavugira mu itangazamakuru. Ariko tuzi ko inteko nshingamategeko ifite ubushobozi bwo guhangana n’ibyo bibazo”.
Ku rundi ruhande, umuyobozi w’akanama gashinzwe umutekano mu Nteko Nshingamategeko we yaje gusa nk’uwemeza ko ugukomera kw’ikibazo cya Boko Haram biterwa n’akaboko mvamahanga. Depite Babajimi Benson yagize ati “Byashoboka ko hari ingufu ziturutse hanze zitera ibyo turi kubona. Hari [ubufatanye] n’umutwe wa leta ya Kiyisilamu (ISIS) hakaba [ubufatanye] n’umutwe uhagarariye ISIS ukorera muri Africa y’Uburengerazuba (ISWAP)”.
Ibi kandi byemezwa n’impuguke mu bikorwa by’iterabwoba n’uburyo biterwamo inkunga, aho bemeza ko bitakiri ibanga kwemeza ko hari ibihugu runaka bitera inkunga Boko Haram.
Impamvu zabo zishingira ku miterere y’ibikorwa by’iterabwoba, aho bisaba amafaranga menshi kugira ngo ibikorwa nk’ibyo bishoboke. Imitwe nk’iyi y’iterabwoba isanzwe ikoresha uburyo butandukanye bwo kubona amafaranga burimo kwiba banki, gushimuta, gucuruza intwaro n’ibiyobyabwenge, gucuruza itabi, kwiba imodoka, gusoresha ubutaka igenzura n’ibindi bituma iyi mitwe ishobora kubona amafaranga yifashisha mu bikorwa byayo.
Ibi ariko ntibihagije ku mutwe munini nka Boko Haram. Raporo y’Ikigo kirwanya ibikorwa by’imitwe y’iterabwoba (AOAV) yagaragaje ko mu mwaka ushize, Boko Haram yinjije amafaranga akabakaba miliyoni 10 z’amadorali, aya akaba ari agatonyanga mu nyanja ku mutwe ufite ubushobozi nk’ubwo Boko Haram ifite.
Aha rero ni ho uyu mutwe wifashisha inkunga ziturutse hanze kugira ngo zunganire ariya mafaranga winjiza maze ubashe gukomeza ibikorwa byawo.
Mu bihugu bikekwa ko bitera inkunga uyu mutwe harimo ibituranyi n’ibya kure.
Cameroon na Qatar.
Cameroon izi cyane Boko Haram kuko ari kimwe mu bihugu uyu mutwe ugabamo ibitero. Kuba iki gihugu gituranye na Nigeria na byo bituma kinyuzwamo inkunga y’abashaka gushyigikira uyu mutwe ari na ko kiba indiri yawo.
Umwe mu bazwi muri ibi bikorwa byo guhuza Boko Haram n’abaterankunga bayo ni umugabo w’umunya-Cameroon witwa Alhaji Abdallah ufite iduka ry’akataraboneka ricuruza imodoka i Doha muri Qatar.
Bikekwa ko uyu mugabo afitanye umubano wihariye na Boko Haram kuko ari umwe mu bitabajwe mu mwaka wa 2013 ubwo habagaho imishyikirano yo kugarura umuryango ukomoka mu Bufaransa wari washimuswe na Boko Haram. Bigizwemo uruhare n’uyu mugabo, Boko Haram yishyuwe agera kuri miliyoni 3 z’amadorali maze irekura uyu muryango.
Iduka rye muri Qatar na ryo ntirivugwaho rumwe, hari abemeza ko aryifashisha mu bikorwa byo gushyigikira uyu mutwe ndetse ko bishoboka ko ryaba ari iry’uyu mutwe.
Amakenga ku gihugu cya Qatar mu bikorwa byo gushyigikira Boko Haram yiyongereye ubwo igisirikari cya Cameroon cyafataga bugwate inyemezabwishyu zishyuriwe muri Qatar ndetse n’impapuro z’ingendo z’icyo gihugu n’iza Libya mu mwaka wa 2014. Ibi byafatiwe mu nkambi ya Boko Haram muri Cameroon mu rugamba igisirikari cy’icyo gihugu cyahanganyemo na Boko Haram hagamijwe kubohoza uduce uyu mutwe wari warigaruriye, nk’uko byatangajwe n’Ikigo gishinzwe kurwanya ibikorwa by’imitwe y’iterabwoba (AOAV)

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia na Nigeria bisanzwe ari ibihugu bifitanye umubano mwiza, dore ko ari ibihugu bishingiye ubukungu bwabyo ku mutungo kamere wa Peteroli. Gusa ariko iyo bigeze kuri Boko Haram, ubanza ibintu bihinduka.
Uwahoze ari Perezida wa Benin, bwana Nicephore Soglo aherutse kubwira imbaga mu nama yari yabereye i Niamey muri Niger ko Saudi Arabia ari umwe mu batanyabikorwa ba hafi ba Boko Haram.
Yagize ati “Boko Haram ifashwa n’incuti zacu zo muri Saudi Arabia ndetse n’incuti zacu zo muri Quatar”.
Saudi Arabia ni igihugu kibumbatiye amateka akomeye y’idini ya Islam, ibi bigatuma kifata nk’igicumbi n’umurinzi w’iri dini. Iyo ni imwe mu mpamvu ituma iki gihugu gishora akayabo mu bikorwa bigamije gukwirakwiza amahame y’iri dini ndetse no gushyigikira imiryango igamije kurikwirakwiza ku batuye Isi hirya no hino.
Ni muri uyu mujyo rero bikekwa ko Saudi Arabia ishyigikira imitwe nka Boko Haram na cyane ko imwe mu ntego z’uyu mutwe ari ugukwirakwiza idini ya Islam, ari nayo mpamvu benshi mu bo ukunze gufata ubasaba guhindura idini mu cyimbo cyo kwicwa. Ibi bizwi cyane nka Jihad.
Ingano y’inkunga Saudi Arabia itera Boko Haram ntizwi neza gusa bikekwa ko ari akavagari k’amafaranga yoherezwa ingunga imwe nyuma y’igihe runaka.
Uruhare rwa Saui Arabia mu gishyigikira Boko Haram kandi rwagaragajwe n’uwahoze akuriye ubutasi bwo hanze bw’Ubufaransa, bwana Alain Chouet, wemeje ko Qatar na Saudi Arabia byombi byageneye Boko Haram inkunga mu buryo butaziguye.

Misiri

Leta y’i Cairo ishobora kuba idatanga ibya Mirenge nk’uko Saudi Arabia ibigenza, gusa umusanzu wayo ntiwakwirengangizwa. Bikekwa ko hari amatsinda y’abanyeshuri biga iby’iyobokamana bagenda bakusanya inkunga iba izajya gufasha Boko Haram nk’uko byemejwe n’umwe mu bahoze barwana intambara zo gukwirakwiza amahame y’idini ya Islam (bazwi nka Mujahedeen), bwana Kabir Umar. Inkunga nk’izi kandi bikekwa ko zikusanywa mu bindi bihugu nka Sudan, Algeria ndetse n’ahandi.
Misiri kandi ni kimwe mu bihugu byasuwe na Sheikh Sani Haliru, umwe mu bayobozi bakomeye ba Boko Haram.

Ibindi bihugu uyu muyobozi yavuze ko yasuye harimo Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Yemen, Sudan, Somalia, Libya na Niger.

Turukiya

Turukiya yashyizwe mu majwi yo gutera inkunga Boko Haram nyuma y’uko hakomeje kugaragara intwaro zitemewe n’amategeko zageraga i Lagos zikubutse muri Turukiya.
Ibi byemejwe na leta ya Nigeria ubwayo, ubwo muri Gicurasi 2017, iyi leta yabwiraga ibiro ntaramakuru by’Abafaransa, AFP, ko yahagaritse intwaro zitemewe n’amategeko zari zaturutse muri Turukiya. Izo ntwaro zari zigizwe n’imbunda zigera kuri 440 zafatiwe ku cyambu cy’i Lagos mbere y’uko zurizwa amakamyo zikajyanwa mu majyaruguru y’icyo gihugu.
Ibi byabaye nyuma y’uko n’ubundi mu mezi atanu yari yabanje, abashinzwe abinjira n’abasohoka muri Nigeria bari bahagaritse ikamyo yari itwaye imbunda zigera kuri 661. Izi mbunda zari zanyuze ku cyambu mu buryo bw’amayobera kuko zitari zujuje ibyangombwa.

Mu mwaka ushize nabwo, hari raporo yari yakozwe na Televiziyo yo mu Misiri yitwa Ten TV igaragaza ko Turukiya yoherereza intwaro Boko Haram. Iyi raporo ariko yatewe utwatsi na Perezida Recep Tayyip Erdogan wa Turukiya aho yayigaragaje nk’idafite agaciro.
Ibimenyetso byakomeje kwiyongera ubwo video yo kwicuza y’umwe mu bayobozi b’ikigo cy’indege cya Turukiya, Turkish Airlines, yakwirakwizwaga ku mbuga nkoranyambaga. Uyu muyobozi, bwana Mehmet Karataş, yari ababajwe n’intwaro yari amaze kohereza muri Nigeria.
Muri iyo video agaragara agira ati “Sinzi niba ziriya ntwaro zizica abayisilamu cyangwa se abakirisitu, ndumva nahemutse cyane”.
Leta ya Nigeria yavuze icyo gihe ko iri gukora iperereza kuri ayo makuru ariko kugeza ubu nta kiratangazwa cyarivuyemo.
Nk’uko bigaragara, birashoboka cyane ko bimwe mu bihugu bifatwa nk’incuti za Nigeria byungukiye mu byago byayo. Ibyago byayo kandi ni inyungu ku bihugu by’i Burayi ndetse n’ibyibumbiye mu muryango wa NATO kuko ubwo Nigeria izajyayo gusaba ubufasha bwo guhangana na Boko Haram, izabuhabwa nayo yiteguye kurekura ubutunzi kamere bwayo, aka ya mvugo igira iti ‘nta cy’ubu cy’ubusa’.

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