Hari impungenge ko amafaranga arihirwa abiga mu mahanga atazagaruzwa

Ubwo umugenzuzi mukuru w’imari ya Leta yakoraga ubugenzuzi mu mwaka warangiye tariki 30 Kamena 2020, yasanze HEC na BRD badafite amakuru ahagije ku banyeshuri biga mu mahanga, bituma agira impungenge z’uko amafaranga abagendaho atazagaruzwa yose.

Raporo y’umugenzuzi mukuru w’imari ya Leta uko yagejejwe ku nteko ishinga amategeko imitwe yombi, ivuga ko nta buryo buhari bwo kwishyuza abarangije kwiga bakaguma mu mahanga.

Ingingo ya 13 y’itegeko Nº 44/2015 ryo kuwa 14/09/2015 rijyanye n’inguzanyo zihabwa abanyeshuri, ivuga ko uwahawe inguzanyo aba azayishyura.

Minisiteri y’Uburezi niyo itanga umurongo w’uburyo izo nguzanyo zishyurwa, ariko kugeza muri Mata 2021 nta nyandiko n’imwe ibigaragaza. Ngo haba MINEDUC, HEC cyangwa BRD , nta rwego na rumwe rufite ahanditse uko abanyeshuri barangije bakaguma mu mahanga bazishyura : bizakorwa bite, umubare w’amafaranga azishyurwa, ndetse n’inyungu zijyaho.

Nyamara ubugenzuzi bwasanze 68% bya ba banyeshuri 329 bagiye hanze kuva 2016 kugeza 2020 bararangije.

BRD na HEC ntibizi uko bahagaze, niba baragarutse cyangwa baragumye mu bihugu bigagamo. Ntibizi niba barabonye akazi ngo batangire bishyure inguzanyo bahawe.

Umugenzuzi ati, « Biragiye rero kwizera ko amafaranga yishyuriwe abanyeshuri mu mahanga ni azagaruzwa yose ».

Ibindi byagaragaye ni nko :

-Kudakorera mu mucyo hagenwa  abanyeshuri bajya kwiga mu mahanga

-Hari abahindura amasomo batamenyesheje HEC

-Hari abajya kwiga hanze ibiboneka no mu Rwanda

-Abahabwa amafaranga nta masezerano basinye

-Abatsindwa, abasibira, abahagarika kwiga bagakomeza guhabwa inguzanyo

Kudakorera mu mucyo

Umugenzuzi yasanze nta buryo bwateganijwe bwo guhitamo abanyeshuri bajya kwiga mu mahanga. Akagira ati, « Nkurikije ibyo niboneye, sinahamya ko guhitamo abajya kwiga mu mahanga bikoranwa umucyo ».

Akongera ati, « Nk’ubu nta raporo twabonye ivuga abanyeshuri batoranijwe n’icyo bagendeyeho, umubare w’abari basabye, abemerewe, abajuriye n’ibisubizo bahawe ; ndetse n’urutonde rw’abarihirwa mu byiciro byabo (abarihirwa byose na Leta, abunganirwa, abongerewe cyangwa abiga ku bw’ubutwererane n’ibihugu bigamo). Rwose naba mbeshye mpamije ko bikora uko bikwiye bikanaca mu mucyo ».

Mu ihererekanyabubasha hagati ya REB na HEC muri Mutarama 2018, ngo harimo ko abanyeshuri basaba, ishami ribishinzwe muri REB rigasuzuma ubusabe bwabo, naryo rikabyoherereza inama y’ubuyobozi ( Board of Directors) ikabifataho umwanzuro ; hanyuma raporo igashyikirizwa Minisitiri w’Uburezi akabyemeza.

Nyuma Minisitiri agasinya amabaruwa yoherezwa BRD, ikabona kurekura amafaranga. Ibi rero ngo umugenzuzi yasanze bidakurikizwa, ngo kuko nta raporo n’imwe ibivugaho yigeze abona.

35 barihirwa ata masezerano bafitanye na  BRD

Mu banyeshuri 329 biga mu mahanga, harimo 35 badafite amasezerano, nyamara bamaze gutangwaho igice cya miliyari (523,475,759) kuva muri 2016 kugeza 2020.

Hari n’abandin 56 bafite amasezerano atarasinyweho na BRD, irarenga ubu imaze kubatangaho  akabakaba miliyari ebyiri ( 1,764,295,645).

Hari n’umunyeshuri utarasinye amasezerano, Banki yo irayasinya, inamuha miliyoni zisaga ijana (119,056,337 ).

Ibi rero ngo bituma umugenzuzi akemanga ibyo BRD igenderaho itanga amafaranga.

Hari n’abafite amasezerano atuzuye

Mu masezerano y’abo banyeshuri 329, BRD ntigaragaza uburyo umunyeshuri azishyura inguzanyo, n’inyungu azongeraho.

Ntihagaragaramo kandi igihe amasomo azamara, ku buryo harin abanyeshuri 11 batigeze bagaragaza igihe amasomo yabo atangirira n’igihe azarangirira ; aba batanzwego miliyoni 376.

Yamwe ngo hari n’abandi 24  igihe cyanditse mu ibaruwa ya Minisitiri kinyuranye n’ikiri mu masezerano.

Hagaragayemo na  6 bakomeje guhabwa amafaranga kandi amasezerano yerekana ko igihe cyo kwiga cyarangiye. Aba nabo bagiyeho miliyoni 117.  Gusa ngo HEC yabongereye igihe, ariko ntibyashyirwa mu masezerano yabo na BRD. Nubwo HEC itatanze impamvu z’uko kongererwa igihe, ngo na BRD yihutiye kwishyura.

Umugenzuzi ati, « Rero biragoye kuzagaruza aya mafaranga yose, mu gihe mu masezerano hatagaragazwa umubare w’azishyurwa ».

Hari abagiye kwiga amasomo yigishwa mu Rwanda

Kimwe mu bigenderwaho hemezwa abajya kwiga mu mahanga, ni ukureba niba umunyeshuri aguye kwiga ibyo Leta y’u Rwanda yashyize ku rutonde rw’ibyihutirwa, bijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga.

Ubugenzuzi bwasanze abanyeshuri 54 biga hanze baragiye kwiga ibitaremejwe nk’ibikenewe mu gihugu. Abo bagiye kwiga iby’amahoteli, ubucuruzi, itangazamakuru n’ibindi nk’ibyo.

Ibi rero ngo bituma nta washira amakenga uburyo batoranya abo banyeshuri, ngo nta mucyo ubamo rwose. Umugenzuzi ati, « Ibi byose biterwa no kuba nta mabwiriza ngenderwaho agaragaza umubare w’abajya kwiga n’ibyo bajya kwiga iyo mu mahanga ».

HEC na BRD ntibizi niba bakiga, niba batsinda

Ubusanzwe ngo  kugira ngo umunyeshuri urihirwa na Leta akomeze guhabwa in guzanyo, asabwa gutanga raporo y’uko amasomo agenda uko umwaka utashye.

Umugenzuzi avuga HEC na BRD bitazi niba abanyeshuri biga mu mahanga bakiga cyangwa barataye amasomo, niba batsinda bakimuka cyangwa basibira. Ngo ntibifite imibare y’abarangije kwiga n’abagikomeza ; cyangwa abamze guhagarika amasomo.

Abo banyeshuri 329 bagombaga kugeza kuri HEC  raporo zigera kuri 726, ariko ngo abamaze kuzitanga ntibarenga 5%. Abagera kuri 27 bonyine nibo batanze raporo 39, ibi umugenzuzi akabishinja HEC idakurikirana abo banyeshuri ku buryo buhoraho. Arengaho akanakeka ko hari ababa bahabwa amafaranga batakiga.

Abo banyeshuri bari mu bihugu 6 binyuranye ku isi, muri USA hariyo  223 ariko 18 nibo batanze raporo. Mu Bwongereza ni75 ariko 6 gusa baziwe amakuru. Muri Canada higa 22, muribo 2 gusa batanze raporo, 5 bo mu Busuwisi bose nta raporo batanze kimwe n’umwe muri Nouvelle Zelande. Muri batatu biga Australia, umwe wenyine ni we uvuga uko amasomo ahagaze.

Hari abahindura amasomo batamenyesheje HEC

Ubusanzwe amabwiriza ajyanye no kwiga mu mahanga avuga uhinduye ibyo yigaga biri mu masezerano, amenyesha HEC ikabyemeza. Ariko ngo ubugenzuzi bwasanze hari abanyeshuri 30 batakiga ibyo boherejwemo, nyamara bakaba barakomeje guhabwa amafaranga bataramenyesheje HEC. Ibi nabyo ngo bigaterwa n’uburangare bwa HEC idakurikirana.

Uburyo bwa Leta bwo kurihira abanyeshuri Kaminuza buhoramo impinduka zigamijwe kubunoza, ariko gutungana kwabwo biracyari kure nk’ukwezi. Kuva kuri SFAR/REB  mu 2006, kugeza kuri BRD na HEC mu 2015, nanubu hari ibitarakemuka.

Inama y’abaminisitiri yateranye tariki 14 Mata 2015 niyo yahaye BRD inshingano zo gucunga amafaranga yishyurirwa abanyeshuri ba Kaminuza, harimo kuyatanga no kuyishyuza. Icyari kigamijwe ni uko mu gihe cy’imyaka icumi (2025) nta yindi nkunga Leta yaba igitanga muri BRD kandi abanyeshuri bagakomeza kurihirwa, hakoreshejwe ayishyuwe n’ayashowe mu bikorwa bibyara inyungu. Izi nshingano BRD yazisinyiye amasezerano tariki 15 Ukwakira 2015 maze muri Mutarama 2016 itanga miliyari 184 ku banyeshuri biga mu Rwanda no mu mahanga.

Karegeya JB Omar

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